Name.-The name Logie is of very common occurrence in Scotland. It is said to be derived from the Gaelic Lag or Laggie, signifying low or flat ground.
Extent.-The extreme length of the parish from north to south is between 6 and 7 miles; and its extreme breadth from east to west, about 6.
Boundaries.-It is bounded on the north, by the parish of Dunblane; on the south, by the river Forth, which divides it from the parishes of Stirling and St Ninians; on the west, by Lecropt and Dunblane; and on the east, by Alva and Alloa
Topographical Appearances.-The shape of this parish is very irregular, owing to the windings of the Forth, which forms its southern boundary. From the Forth to the foot of the Ochil hills, the country is a dead level, of rich and highly cultivated carse ground, presenting a remarkable and pleasing contrast with this bold and almost perpendicular range of hills, rising suddenly from the plain to the height of 2500 feet. In the parish of Logie, the Ochils are almost entirely destitute of wood, except in the immediate vicinity of Airthrey Castle; but their lofty and precipitous front, stretching in one long unbroken chain from west to east, clothed with rich pasture, interrupted by rugged precipices and bare rocks, presents to the eye one of the most picturesque and beautiful mountain ranges to be found in Scotland. The most remarkable peak in this parish is Demyat, well known to the tourist as commanding one of the most extensive and finely diversified views in the kingdom. From its summit, the Forth, the chief of Scottish rivers, may be traced almost from its source in Loch Ard, as far as the German Ocean. Edinburgh is distinctly seen, and it is even said that the coast of Ireland is some-times visible. The well known windings of the Forth, and the more humble, but hardly less picturesque meanderings of the Devon, "Stirling's ancient tower and town," the ruins of Cambuskenneth Abbey, and the beautiful domain of Airthrey Castle, form the most striking objects in the immediate foreground, while the view on the north and west, bounded by the lofty summits of the Grampians, extends on the south as far as the hills of Peebles-shire.
Climate.-The climate of the low lands of the parish of
Logie is peculiarly mild and healthy, on which account, as well
as for the benefit of goat-whey, the village of Blair Logie and
its neighbourhood, at the foot of the Ochils, have long been a
favourite resort for invalids in Spring and summer. The mountainous
district of the parish (which is inhabited by only five or six
families,) enjoys a much keener, though not less healthy atmosphere.
The improvement of agriculture has tended, in a remarkable degree,
to improve the general healthiness of the district. The land being
thoroughly drained, and brought into the highest state of cultivation,
ague, and other distempers, endemic in wet marshy situations,
-and formerly very prevalent in this country, have entirely disappeared;
while the great number of inhabitants who reach a very advanced
period of life, afford the best proof of the salubrity of the
climate. Infections distempers are but little known, and even
the cholera, which made great ravages in the
neighbouring districts, never spread itself in this parish.
Hydrography.-The Frith of Forth, which bounds the parish on the south, is navigable for vessels of considerable burden as far as Stirling, at high tide, forming one of the most important means of inland water communication in the kingdom. The water is thick and muddy, the banks low, slimy, and covered with reeds and sedges.
The Devon and the Allan, which bound the parish on the east and west respectively, have been rendered classic streams by Burns and Scott. The Devon, near its source among the Ochils, is a very romantic stream. Its course Is peculiarly circuitous and winding. After having made the circuit of the whole range of the Ochils, it falls into the Forth at Cambus, in the parish of Alloa, almost directly Opposite the spot where it rises on the op-posite side of the hills. The parish is well watered by numerous mountain Streams, and springs of the finest water.
The only piece of standing water is a beautiful little artificial lake in Airthrey Park.
Airthrey Mineral Spring.- The mineral spring now so celebrated, and so much resorted to by invalids, rises on the estate of Airthrey, on the high grounds above the village of Bridge of Allan. It was discovered in the course of working the Airthrey copper mine, from the sole of which it springs. The miners, conceiving it to be a common salt spring, made use of it for culinary purposes, and gave it a decided preference to all other water. There are four springs in all, though Dr Thomson of Glasgow, owing to some mistake, which I have not heard accounted for, has given analyses of six distinct springs. " Of these four springs, numbers 1 and 2, (commonly called the Weak Water,) are conveyed into the same reservoir and used together; No.3, the Strong Water, is used alone; and No.4, which issues from the rock on the western wall of the mine, is not used. It is a scanty spring, termed the Black Spring, in consequence of its depositing in the natural basin, into which it is received, a black substance, which has not been examined." (Forrest's Report.) The following is a copy of the results of Dr Thomson's analysis, as published in the Airthrey Table in the pump-room :
"Springs, No. 1 and 2; specific gravity, 1.00714. 1000 grains
|Common salt,||5.1 grains|
|Muriate of lime,||4.674|
|Sulphate of lime,||0.26|
One pint contains,
|Common salt,||37.45 grains|
|Muriate of lime,||34.32|
|Sulphate of lime,||1.19|
" Spring, No.3; specific gravity, 1.00915. 1000 grains contain,
|Common salt,||6.746 grains|
|Muriate of lime,||5.826|
|Sulphate of lime,||0.716|
|Muriate of magnesia||0.086|
A wine pint contains,
|Common salt,||47.534 grains|
|Muriate of lime,||38.461|
|Sulphate of lime,||4.715|
|Muriate of magnesia||0.450|
Spring, No.4, (as before-mentioned not used, and on which account
not mentioned in the Airthrey Table) ; specific gravity, 1.00984;
|Common salt,||537.567 grains|
|Muriate of lime,||282.769|
|Sulphate of lime,||26.084|
|Muriate of magnesia||2.438|
" On the ] 8th November 1830, the temperature of the water of spring No. 3 as it issues from the rock in the mine, was 51.°25. At the same time the temperature of the air of the mine was 52°. The temperature, as it falls from the pump in the pump-room, about an hour after the preceding observations in the mine, was 49°.25, the air of the room being at the same time 49.°50. The quantity of water delivered by this spring in twenty-four hours was, on the 18th November 1830, in round numbers, 1260 imperial gallons; and the tacksman informs me that the supply is not much affected by the seasons. The water is transparent and colourless, and destitute of smell. Its taste is bitter and unpleasant.
"On the same day, the average temperature of the two springs, Nos. 1 and 2 was 50°, the temperature of the mine being 52°. The temperature of the water as it fell from the pump, 47°.50. The quantity of water delivered by these springs in twenty-four hours, was 360 imperial gallons. The tacksman, however, states that this supply is far below the average; and he attributes the deficiency to leakage in the pipes. He thinks that, in general, the supply of the weak water equals that of the strong. The weak water, like the strong, is transparent and colourless, and destitute of smell. Its taste, though rather bitter, is by no means unpleasant." (Forrest's Report.)
The value of these springs, in a medicinal point of view, is unquestioned. Considered as a saline aperient, the Airthrey waters far surpass those of Pitcaithly and Dunblane; and are only inferior in the amount of their impregnation to some of the springs at Cheltenham and Leamington. " It may be even doubted," says Mr Forrest, " if they are not entitled to take precedence of these springs." As a remedy for scrofula, the same gentleman ranks them second only to the waters of Pitcaithly, on account of their richness in muriate of lime ; and the Airthrey spring, No.4, he considers as decidedly superior even to these last mentioned in this point of view. But, if the value of a mineral water is to be inferred not only from the facts furnished by its chemical analysis, but also from experience of the benefits arising from its use, the Airthrey springs must be placed in the very highest rank among the mineral springs of Great Britain. Every season adds to their reputation; and, in defiance of all the inconveniences of very indifferent accommodation in the neighbouring lodging-houses, the numbers that repair thither in search of health are every year rapidly increasing. It is much to be regretted that-both the lodging-houses, and the pump-room itself, are still in a style so little corresponding to the increasing fame of the waters, and the number of visitors.* I am told, that, during the present season, nearly 500 persons have drunk of the waters in one day; and numerous families are every year obliged to return home for want of accommodation, even of the meanest kind. The pump-room is small and mean. A very neat building, in the cottage style, has, however, been lately erected by Lord Abercromby, and conveniently fitted up with hot, cold, and shower baths. It is greatly to be wished that some enterprizing individual would establish an hotel, after the model of those at Harrogate or Pitcaithly, which, if properly managed, could not fail of making a very considerable return. For a more particular account of these springs, and of the particular diseases in which they have been found beneficial, the reader is referred to tile very distinct and circumstantial Report, already so often quoted, by Mr William Hutton Forrest, surgeon in Stirling.
* Since the above was written, the accommodation
at Bridge-of Allan has been much
improved, by the erection of a considerable number of very comfortable
lodging-houses; and, as the increase of visitors seems fully so
keep pace with the increase of accommodation, we can expect that
more will be built shortly.
For the following account of the Geology and Mineralogy of the parish, I am indebted to the kindness of Robert Bald, Esq. Civil-Engineer.
Geology.-This parish, in a geological point of view, is divided into two distinct portions, both as regarding the alluvial covers or deposit above the rocks, and the rocks themselves. This line of division runs in an east and west direction. Upon the north side of this line are the Ochil Hills, and on the south side of it is the arable land declining to the river Forth.
The Ochils are composed of trap rocks, generally supposed to be of volcanic origin. The beds are of various thickness, nearly vertical, having their dip to the south. The veins in them run in a northerly direction, with a few exceptions.
The rocks under the land to the south of the Ochils, and in contact with them, are of the coal formation, being a continuation of the Clackmannanshire coal-field, which commences about a mile east from Dollar, at the foot of the Ochils. No trials of any extent have been made for coal in this parish; and there is very little hope of finding any of a workable thickness, because it is evident that the strata belong to the lowest series which compose the great coal-field of Scotland.
The rocks of this formation not having been laid open at the foot of the Ochils, no account can be given of the dip next their face; but there is every reason to conclude, that, as they are a continuation of the Clackmannanshire coal-field, which, along the face of the Ochils, is of a trough shape, the strata here will dip and rise in the same manner, that is, they will rise quickly to the north, along the foot of the hills, and, forming a trough to the south, will there rise with a moderate inclination to the south It is evident that the western end of the trough is in this parish, as the coal strata are seen rising to the west, near Causewayhead.
The Ochils, being of trap rock, are various in their composition, hardness, and colour. The amygdaloid rock is abundant, with agates and calc-spar of a globular form disseminated. Along the face of the hills, and particularly to the westward, is a thick bed of conglomerate rock, or breccia, having a dark-brown coloured arenaceous base, in which are imbedded fragments of trap rock, chiefly angular.
The coal formation rocks are chiefly sandstone, of various shades of white and red, with alternating beds of slate-clay, in which are found beds and balls of common clay ironstone. Some thin beds of coarse limestone are also found.
In the midst of these strata of the coal formation, where they rise to the west and form the west end of the trough or basin, rises the remarkable rock known by the name of Abbey Craig. It is a trap rock, and of that kind denominated greenstone. It rises from the east to the west, at an inclination of about one in four, and terminates in a very abrupt craggy precipice of about 500 feet in height from the plain. From the foot of the precipice there is a sloping foot or glacier of about half of the height, and this slope is covered with very large boulders, and immense masses of the rock which have fallen from the precipice. This rock of Abbey Craig is, in every respect, both with regard to texture, general form, and dip, precisely similar to the Stirling Castle and Craig-forth Rocks, in the immediate vicinity.
The natural divisions or fissures of the Abbey Craig Rock are the same as in all greenstone rocks, that is, they are at right angles to the sole or bed on which it rests; so that the precipice presents a rude columnar form.
The greenstone rock does not compose the whole height of Abbey Craig from the plain on the west, it being only about 250 feet thick, or nearly the half of the whole height The strata found under it are composed of the various coal strata before-mentioned. Here some trials have been made for coal and limestone; the latter, of a coarse quality, was found; also argillaceous ironstone, but no mineral of a workable value. It is, however, thought, from the analogy of similar strata, that a workable limestone may be found in this quarter.
The greenstone is composed of felspar and hornblende, and, when broken, presents a rough crystallized appearance.
With regard to organic remains, none have been found in the Ochils. This circumstance constitutes one of the chief discriminating characters of this class of rocks. In the coal formation adjoining, the usual organic remains have been found.
The only ore found in this parish, and wrought to some extent, is copper. It was found in veins.
The simple minerals, found in the trap rocks are, small rock crystals, calc-spar, heavy spar, ironstone, agates, felspar, and hornblende.
The alluvial deposits upon the Ochils are chiefly composed of the debris of the rocks, mixed with sandy loam and gravel; and at the foot of the Ochils, from the village of Menstrie to the westward of Airthrey Castle, are undulated banks, mounds, and knolls of loam, sand, and gravel, in which are occasionally large boulders. This deposit of gravel appears to have been occasioned by the opening which had once existed betwixt the Abbey Craig and the Ochils. All the alluvial deposits south of the face of the Ochils, and those mounds of gravel, are of a more recent formation than that before-mentioned, being evidently formed by the tides in the River Forth. In Scotland, this deposit is known by the name of carse land, and is very fertile. The surface has a declination to the River Forth, quite imperceptible. In the eastern part of the parish, it reaches to the rocky foot of the Ochils, from which they rise abruptly without any intermediate deposit. This alluvial deposit is of very various depth. Bores have been put down above 30 feet before reaching the rock; but in all the bores put down to the south of Abbey Craig, no rock has been found; indeed, there is reason to conclude that it is of a very great depth.
The upper part of this deposit is a strong adhesive clay, from three to six feet in thickness, under which is a very soft silt or sleech of a dark bluish-black colour. In this silt is uniformly found a bed of sea-shells mixed with sand. The varieties of these are the same as those found recently at Leith; but the most numerous are those of the common oyster, mussel, and cockle. This bed of shells extends for miles both to the east and west of Abbey Craig.
The most remarkable animal remain found in this parish, in this deposit, was the entire skeleton of a whale, which, according to the measurements which were made, must have been fully seventy feet long. It was found in the year 1819, in the course of some draining operations carrying on by the late Sir Robert Abercromby in the estate of Airthrey. The place where it was found was adjoining the south side of the turnpike-road east from the eastern porter's lodge, which heads to Airthrey Castle, and near to the north verge of the alluvial deposit of the River Forth. The bones were in general, hard and undecayed, and lay in regular connected order from the head to the tail. They were imbedded in the blue silt immediately under the stiff clay. It was found, from very accurate levels taken, that this skeleton lay twenty-two feet higher than the pitch of the present highest stream-tides of the River Forth, immediately opposite. From which circumstance there is reason to conclude, that the highest tides of the River Forth are, in this district, at least twenty-six feet lower than they were at the time when the whale was stranded; and it is evident that this must have been many centuries before the Romans invaded this country, as there was till lately upon the side of the Forth, near the farmhouse of the manor, a Roman fort,-and the Manor Ford, which had been connected with the fort, and formed of loose stones, remains to the present day. These circumstances prove, that the Forth has not changed its course in this immediate district for an immense period of years.
Sir Robert Abercromby was at all due pains to have the bones very carefully dug up, and carried to a safe place in his court of offices; and then, in the most liberal and polite manner, presented the whole to the museum of the Edinburgh University. The Immense canine-bone and ribs, and a few of the vertebra, are to be seen at the head of the lower room of the museum. It is remarkable that one of the ribs had been broken and knit again, as the bone is much thicker at that place.
Several veins have been opened and explored in this parish, in search of copper in the Ochils, but none yielded copper in any quantity, excepting the vein at the Mine House. The vein is in the conglomerate or breccia rock ; it runs in a northerly direction, and was drained by a day level, carried rip from the flat alluvial land, the mouth of which is on the north side of the turnpike-road, and immediately adjoining it. The late Williams, the mineralogist, visited this mine, many years ago; and he states in his works that the appearances of copper were good in the sole of the mine; but the vein can be wrought no deeper without the aid of machinery.
About forty years ago, this copper mine, after having been for a long time abandoned as an unprofitable adventure, was opened by the Caledonian Mining Company, and wrought with considerable enterprise and spirit. After they had accumulated a quantity of dressed ore, and the vein appearing favourable for being productive, they erected at Alloa smelting-furnaces, where excellent copper was produced ready for the manufacturer; but the promising appearances failed, and, after much loss, the adventure was given up and the furnaces taken down.
Both yellow and grey copper ores were found, but chiefly the yellow; the accompanying minerals were calc-spar and heavy-spar.
The ironstone found in the coal formation was the common argillaceous kind, which yields about 30 per cent of iron.
There are a few open quarries in this parish. One is of sandstone near Causewayhead, but the stone is only fit for very inferior nor purposes. There are several quarries in the Ochils for stones, suitable for making and repairing of roads; and a quarry at Abbey Craig has been wrought for a long period of years, not only for the making of roads, but for gate-posts and masonry. It is particularly to be noticed, that those portions of it which, when broken, present a rough crystallized surface, have been extensively used for the grinding of wheat.
As the chief supply of mill-stones used in the kingdom, for the manufacture of flour, was imported from France, it was with the greatest difficulty they could he procured during the long war with France, and that at a most enormous price,-on which account, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, London, offered a premium of L.105 to the person who would find in Great Britain a rock, from which mill-stones could be made for the manufacture of flour, as a substitute for the French mill-stones, known by the names of Bhurr-stones.
The Abbey Craig rock, on account of its rough surface when broken, was thought by James Brownhill, miller at the Alloa mills, to be suitable for the manufacture of flour; and from it he made a pair of mill-stones, the first which ever had been made from that species of rock. These, when brought to trial, produced flour in every point equal to that produced from the French mill-stones. A pair of the Abbey Craig mill-stones were sent to London, and the Society of Arts were so fully satisfied with the execution of these stones, and the quality of the flour produced, that they awarded their premium of L.105 to James Brownhill for the discovery.
The Abbey Craig millstones are built or composed of a number of pieces, similar to the French mill-stone. They have a very uniform cutting surface, but require to be more frequently picked or dressed than the French stones; but a very slight dressing is necessary and is quickly done. They require no alum, whereas the numerous large cells, with which the French mill-stones abound, required to be filled with melted alum every time the stones are dressed, which is a constant expense.
More than three hundred pairs of these mill-stones have been made from the Abbey Craig rock, both for the manufacture of flour and for distillery purposes, for which they are also peculiarly suitable; they cost from L. 12 to L.20 a pair, at the time a pair of French mill-stones cost from L.45 to L.60; but since the establishment of peace with France, the French mill-stones have fallen very low in price, while the cost of the Abbey Craig stones remains the same as formerly, so that there is now comparatively little demand for the latter.
Zoology.-The zoology of this parish differs but little from that of the rest of Scotland. The Ochil hills abound in rabbits. Foxes are not numerous. Game of the ordinary sorts is abundant. There are a good many grouse to be found on the hills, and a few pheasants on the low grounds and plantations. Squirrels are very numerous in the woods of Airthrey. Hawks of various kinds are to be met with, and the blue hunting fa1con occasionally makes his nest on Dunmyat. Deer are to be met with on the hills, but they are not numerous. The hill streams abound in trout; and both the Devon and Allan are frequented by lovers of the angle. The salmon of the Forth are well known ; but there is no fishing-station in this parish.
Botany-The following list of rare or interesting
phaenogamous plants found in the parish of Logie, is copied from
Mr Forrest's Report, formerly alluded to:
|Agrostis canina||Lysimachia Nummularia||Goaphalium germanicuni|
|Vaccinium uliginosum||Sedum villosum||Saxifraga granulata|
|Vaccinium Oxycoecoa||Juncus glaucus||Anticyllis vulueraria|
|Solidago Virgaurea||Agrimollia Eupatoria||Malva moschata|
|Poa aquatica||Reseda Luteola*||Lychnis viscaria|
|Sparganium simplex||Mentha rubra||Cistus helianthemum|
|Symphytum officinale||Tanacetum vulgare||Epilobium angustifolium|
|Slism latifolium||Ribes nigrum||Arenaria verne|
|Briza media||Ononia arvensi,||Echium vulgare|
|Juniperus communis||Scrophularia nodosa||Cichorium Intybus|
|Liex nantia||Aster Tripolium||Chrysanthemum segetum|
|Fumaria claviculata||Valeriana offi cinali,||Scabiosa arvenais|
|Scirpus paucilorus||Caitha palustri,||Asperula odorata|
|Convallaria majalis||Digitalia purpurea||Rosa arvensis|
|Anagallis arvensis||Atropa Belladona||Geum urbanum|
|Geum rivale||Geranium pratense||Sedum reflexum, ²|
|Punus Cerasus||Geranium dissectum||Mimulus luteus ³|
* This plant is found in great abundance at the foot of Dunmyat. It was used in dyeing woolen stuffs of a yellow colour.
The variety with the white flower is found on the OchiIs, near Menstrie.
Abounds on the Abbey Craig.
The berries of this plant are highly poisonous. The effects are
best counteracted by drinking freely of vinegar.
° Is very abundant in the fields. In 1827, the hay crop in the neighbourhood was very much injured by this plant. It had evidently been sown with the seed.
² A specimen of this plant is growing on the roof of a house of the village of Causewayhead beside Sempervinum tectorum.
Flora Americae Septentrionalis, p.426,) is found, on the banks
of the Forth below Causewayhead. at a great distance from gardens,
and perfectly naturalised.
The principal plantations are on the estate of Airthrey on the Ochils, and are in a thriving condition. There are no very ancient trees.